Computational Thinking & Scratch – Intro to Computer Science – Harvard’s CS50 (2018)

[Introduction] DAVID MALAN: This is CS50,
Harvard University’s introduction to the intellectual
enterprises of computer science and the art of programming. My name is David Malan,
and if you are among those in the room who are thinking, why
am I in a class of computer science, realize that I too felt
that exact same way. In fact, my freshman
year, I didn’t quite get up the nerve to take this class
or computer science more generally, and that was largely because
I was intimidated by it. I was a little nervous. It felt well out of my comfort zone. And I really didn’t know at the end
of the day what it actually was. But realize if you, too, are
feeling a little bit of that, or even if you’re among
those more comfortable who have dabbled in computer
science or programming, realize that there’s so many blanks
that we can fill in along the way so that ultimately, at the
end of the semester, everyone will feel themselves on the same page. And until then, rest assured that 68%
of the people sitting to your left and to your right and
behind and in front have never taken a CS course
before, which may very well be the demographic into which you fit. But realize, too, that with
such an amazing support structure with so many office hours
and sections and materials and beyond, realize that what’s ultimately
important in this course is not so much where you end
up relative to your classmates in week 10, our final week, but
where you end up relative to yourself in week zero. And indeed, that is where we now are. And as it turns out, computer
scientists start counting at zero. And so over the next 11
weeks, we will take you from being among those
less comfortable or perhaps somewhere in between
less comfortable and more to feeling much more comfortable
and confident and capable than that. But to get there, we need to understand
what computer science really is. And this was something I didn’t
understand until I set foot in a room like this. And I dare say we can distill computer
science into just this picture. Computer science is
about problem solving. And I know that high school
courses typically do kind of paint a misleading picture
that it’s only about and it’s entirely about programming
and people with their heads down in the computer lab working
fairly anti-socially on code, but the reality is it’s all about
solving problems, and very often, solving problems collaboratively
either in person or by leveraging code, programs that others
have written in the past. And what does it mean
to solve a problem? Well, you need inputs. So there’s a problem
you’re trying to solve. That is the input. And you want output. You want the solution to that problem. And the sort of secret
sauce of computer science is going to be everything
in this proverbial black box in the middle over the
next several weeks, where you begin to understand
exactly what you can do with that. But in order to start solving
problems, we kind of just need to decide as a group how we’re
going to represent these problems and what might a problem be. Well, in this room, there’s
a whole bunch of people. If we wanted to take attendance or
count the number of people in this room, I might need to start keeping
track of how many people I see. But how do I represent the
number of people I see? Well, I can do it sort of old school
and I can just take out a piece of chalk or whatnot and say, all right. I see 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. I can do little stylistic
conventions like that to save space and remind myself. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and so forth. Or I can, of course, just
do that on my own hand. So 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and so forth. But obviously, how high can
I count on just one hand? So 5 you would think, but that’s
just because we haven’t really thought hard enough about this problem. It turns out that with just these five
fingers, let alone these five more, I can actually count rather higher
because after all, the system I’m using of hashmarks
on the board or just now with my fingers is just kind of
keeping my fingers down and putting them up to represent ones, really. But what if I actually took into
account the order of my fingers and sort of permuted them, so to speak,
so that it’s really patterns of fingers that represent the number
of people in the room, and not just the mere presence
of a finger going up or down. In other words, this can remain zero. This could still be one. But what if two is not
just this, the obvious? But what if it’s just this? So raising just one, my second finger. What if, then, three is this? So we have 0, 1, 2, 3. That’s going to lead us to
four somewhat offensively. But if we begin to jump
ahead to five, I might now permute this finger and this finger up. And if I want to now represent
six, I could do this. And now seven. In other words, I’ve expressed so
many more patterns on my hand already and if we keep doing this,
I think I can actually represent painfully perhaps like 32
different patterns, and therefore 32 different people, on my hands alone. Or 31 people if I
start counting at zero. So what is that–
what’s the relationship and how did we even get here? Well, it turns out that
computers are kind of simplistic, much like our hands here. At the end of the day, your
computer is plugged into the wall or it’s got a battery, so it either
has or it does not have electricity. At the end of the day, that
is the physical resource that drives these things and our
phones and all of technology today. So if there is either electricity
or not, that kind of maps nicely to no finger or yes finger. And indeed, computers, as you probably
know, only speak what language? What alphabet, so to speak? Yeah. Binary. Bi meaning two. And indeed, that refers to the
fact that in binary in computers, you only have two digits– zero and one. We humans, of course, have
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and then we can combine
those to count even higher. But computers only have
0, 1, and then that’s it. Because at the end of
the day, there’s actually a direct mapping between power being off
and it being a zero or power being on and it being one, or some electrons
or whatever flowing from your battery or from the wall. So this is why computers
tend to speak only binary, because at the end of the day,
it just maps really cleanly to what it is that’s powering
them in the first place. But how is this actually useful? If computers only have zeros and
ones, how can they do anything useful? Well, think about our human world, where
you might have this pattern of symbols. This is decimal, dec meaning 10
because you have 0 through 9. And this is, of course, 123. But why? If you haven’t thought about
this in quite some time, this is really just a pattern of three
symbols, one and two and three shapes, or glyphs, on the screen. But we humans, ever since grade
school, have started ascribing meaning to each of these numbers, right? If you think back, this is the ones
column, this is the tens column, this is the hundreds column, and
so forth, and we could keep going. And so why does this pattern–
one, two, three– mean 123? Well, it’s because all
of us sort of intuitively nowadays are just quickly in our
head doing 100 times 1 plus 10 times 2 plus 1 times 3, which of course
gives us 100 plus 20 plus three, and then the number we
know mathematically as 123. But we’re all doing this so quickly, you
don’t really think about this anymore. Well, computers work
fundamentally the same way. They don’t have as many digits– 0 through 9– as we do. They only have zeros and ones. And so if they were to
store values, you’re only going to see zeros
and ones on the screen, but those zeros and ones
just mean different things. Instead of having a ones
place, tens, a hundreds, they’re going to have a ones
place, a twos place, a fours place, and then eights and 16 and beyond. Now, why? Well, one and 10 and 100, turns
out those are powers of 10. 10 to the 0 is technically 1. 10 to the 1 is just 10. 10 to the 2 is 100. And that’s why you have ones, tens
hundreds, thousands, and so forth. Computers are apparently
using powers of 2. Not surprising. Binary– two. So if you only have ones, twos,
and fours as your placeholders, if a computer were
storing these digits– 0, 0, 0– that computer is presumably
storing what number so far as we humans understand it? Well, that’s how a
computer would store zero. If a computer is storing
literally 0, 0, 0, just like in our human world, that
also is 0, but that’s technically because it’s 4 times 0 plus 2 times 0
plus 1 times zero, which is obviously zero. Meanwhile, if a computer is
actually storing not just, say, 0, 0, 0, but instead is
storing this value in binary, what does that map to in decimal? So that’s one. And now, why, if we change this 0 and
1 to this value here, is this two? Well, mathematically, for
the exact same reasons. And so earlier, I had five fingers, but
if you consider just my first three, when I did this holding up one
finger, I was representing two. And if I want to represent three,
recall that I put up the second finger. And so the reason that
could nicely represent three is because all I was doing with my
human hand was counting in binary. And I could keep counting
more and more and more. And so if I have five fingers or
five bits, bit meaning binary digits, I could count up, it turns
out, if we do the math, as high as 31 by starting to zero. It’s going to be hard to
physically do that, but we could. So why is this useful? At the end of the day,
a computer, therefore, can represent any number of values from
0 to 1 to 2 to 3 to some number much, much, much higher than that. All it needs is enough
bits, enough zeros and ones. Well, what are those bits? Well, all of us have these days in our
phones sources of light, for instance. So I could actually say that
this physical device right now– might be a little hard to tell– it does have a flashlight and it’s
technically off at the moment. But if I turn this flashlight on,
thereby using some of the electricity, now, I’m storing a one. And so the phone is on. Now, it’s off. Now, it’s on. And if I see– can I borrow someone’s phone real quick? May I? OK. And flashlight. How do I turn on the flashlight? Oh. Shake it. That’s OK. OK. Thank you. Oh. Thank you. OK. So this is great. Now, I can count higher. Now, this represents the number what if
I have two light bulbs or two switches on at the moment? Yeah. Three. Because I have a one,
I have a one, and I have two, which of course is
going to end up equaling three. And if I pick up a third phone
somehow, I could count even higher. Technically, if I had
three light bulbs on– one, one, one– what
would that value be? Seven. Because it’s a four plus a
two plus a one, and so forth. Thank you so much for the spontaneity. So why does this not lead
to limitations for us? I can count in decimal
as high as I want. I can now count in binary as high as
I want, so long as I have enough bits. But how do I actually
represent other information? Well, if I want to represent something
like a letter, how do I get there? If computers only have electricity
in them and they use binary to count, and yet somehow they’re much more
useful than just doing math– they can have text messages and e-mails
and websites and videos and more– how do we get from zeros
and ones to letters? Well, we– yeah. Sorry. A little louder. Yeah. We just need to kind of
relate the numbers to letters. In other words, all the people in this
room just need to decide at some point that, you know what? If we want to represent something
like the capital letter A, we just need to decide
on a pattern of bits, a pattern of fingers,
that’s going to represent A. And it turns out humans
years ago just unilaterally decided 65 shall be the decimal number
that represents capital letter A. And you might guess capital B is
represented by what decimal number? 66. And then C is 67 and so forth. And there’s a mapping of like
128 or even 256 possible values for all the keys you might
see on a typical keyboard in order to represent letters. Now, how does a computer distinguish,
though, numbers from letters? Well, just depends on the context. If you’re using like a
calculator program on your Mac or PC or iPhone or Android,
well, the computer, the device, is just going to know contextually,
let me interpret this pattern of zeros and ones as actual numbers to do math. But if you’re using the SMS app
or the messages app on your phone, you’re going to actually
be in the context of text, and so your phone is going to interpret
that same pattern of zeros and ones, or light bulbs being off, or, at
the end of the day, transistors, tiny pieces of hardware and
computers that are either on or off– it’s going to interpret those patterns
as just representing a letter. If you’re in the context of a text
messaging application or Microsoft Word or Google Docs or the like, it
completely depends on context. The system we humans came up with just
called ASCII, American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The name isn’t interesting, but the
fact that we all agreed years ago that 65 is A and so forth
is what’s important. And so for instance, if we
look at this mapping here of just the first few
letters, what does this mean? If I were to now get a text message
and I had the ability somehow to look underneath the hood, so to
speak, at the pattern of zeros and ones that someone had just
texted me, and that pattern, if I convert it to decimal, technically
said, let’s say, 72 and 73– so I get a whole bunch
of zeros and ones. I do some math and I realize,
OK, I just received 72 and 73, but this is texting, and so it’s not
just numbers my friend is sending me. It’s a message. What message did my friend likely send
me if he or she sent 72 and then 73? Yeah. Hi. H-I. Because if you skim
ahead at the right there, that just happens to be in ASCII the
mapping between 72 and 73, H and I. If technically, the message
had a third byte, if you will. A byte, if you’ve ever
wondered, is just eight bits. It’s convenient to talk not
in terms of single bits, where you can’t count very high,
but with a byte, or eight bits, you can count higher. And so it turns out if I received a
third byte, another sequence of eight zeros and ones together– 33. How would we know what
this message now is? Yeah. So it turns out you
would not know this other than by guessing or Googling or
just coming in with this knowledge. This is now “HI!” with an exclamation point because 33
just so happens, if you look it up, to map to an exclamation point, as well. Now, if we actually looked
at the binary of this, you would actually see this
pattern of zeros and ones. This is how you represent 72 in binary. This is you represent 73. And this is how you represent 33. And notice I’ve only used one,
two, three, four, five, six bits, even though I technically tend
to receive things in units of 8, units of bytes. But why did I not bother writing
another 00 here and another 0 here? Does it matter when you
write these things out? No. Not really. Like in English, in our human world,
if you were to write one, two, three, that’s 123. If you were to write 0,
1, 2, 3, that’s still 123. So even though we tend to
get them in clusters of 8, we don’t necessarily need to write
those when just talking about them. So what have we done? Well, let me introduce a fancier
word now known as abstraction. Abstraction is just a term generally
used in computer science and we’ll soon see in programming for taking some
low level– like literally low level– implementation details, like
minutiae even, and understanding them at some point, but then deciding this
is not a useful level conceptually to think about problems. I really don’t want to solve problems in
this world of thinking in 0’s and 1’s. I’d much rather think about things
minimally in decimal, or better yet, in the context of letters if I’m
actually receiving text, or even some other representation. So abstraction is about taking
fairly low level details and just simplifying them so that we
can have a more useful conversation and never again worry about where
the electricity is coming from. We can just stipulate my computer
can represent zeros and ones. Therefore, it can represent numbers. Therefore, it can also
represent ASCII or letters. And we can kind of move on and start
solving more interesting problems. But it would seem that we can’t solve
all problems because on my keyboard here, this American keyboard here,
there’s a whole bunch of symbols, like a 100 or 200 maybe in total if we
actually hit shift and option and all of that. But what you don’t see are
some pretty common characters. Especially in a very
international audience, what can I apparently not
even type on this keyboard? What kinds of symbols? Yeah. Anything with an accent. If you have accents over
vowels or other letters. What else? I’m sorry. Umlauts or other
characters above letters. Yeah. Like pound symbol? Oh. Like the UK pound symbol. Sure. And other countries, too. Any number of Asian languages. There’s so many symbols that are
not depicted on this keyboard, and yet somehow, all of us with
international keyboards or phones can surely express themselves. But that’s because phones and computers
these days don’t just use ASCII. ASCII literally used
just eight bits total. Technically seven, but then,
ultimately, really eight. And with eight bits, if
you actually do the math– if you have eight bits
or eight fingers, you can only permute them in 256
total possible ways, which is to say that you can only represent
256 characters using ASCII with numbers underneath the hood, and
that’s not enough to represent so many different symbols
like those enumerated here. You can’t represent any of the
accents that you can nonetheless type on your Macs and
PCs and you certainly can’t type these things,
which are very much in vogue. Which even though they’re pictures,
they’re actually just characters. Because it turns out some years ago, the
world decided eight bits is not enough. Let’s start using something called
Unicode, where you actually use one or two or three or even four bytes. So eight bits or 16 bits, 24 bits, or
even 32 bits to represent characters. And now, we have the ability
to represent thousands or even millions of characters. And frankly, daresay, the result
of that huge amount of availability is partly why there are so many
of these things these days. And they just keep making more because
there’s just so many different numbers available to us. So Unicode is often a specific
version of it called UTF-8, which we’ll see before long. But let me ask this question here. This is a crying face with
joy, I think this is called. So it turns out,
according to Apple or iOS, this is the most popular emoji
that at least iPhone people are sending to each other. So when you’re receiving this, though,
if we can really take the fun out of this, what pattern of bits are you
actually receiving from your friend? He or she is clearly trying
to express some emotion, but really, what your friend is sending
you– the decimal number 128,514. Or really, if you looked at
the zeros and ones coming to you over the internet
or airwaves, you’re getting this pattern of zeros and
ones, which is hardly joyful or hardly descriptive, but all
your phone or computer are doing is seeing
this pattern of bits, looking it up in like a little
cheat sheet, and saying, oh. Whenever I see this pattern of bits
in the context of text like texting, I should actually display
it as that picture. Now, that picture has a lot
of yellow and other colors in it, but how do we even get there? Well, it turns out that this
same pattern of numbers– 72, 73, 33– which just to be
sure, a moment ago, meant what? Hi. In the context of a textual program like
Microsoft Word, Google Docs, texting, this means hi. But what if you saw this
same pattern of bytes– and again, we could
draw the zeros and ones, but it’s not interesting
anymore, so we’re going to abstract away at the decimal level. If you got this same
pattern of zeros and ones or numbers in the context of
like Photoshop or a browser or some kind of photo program,
well, it might make more sense to interpret it not as text, but
as imagery, some kind of colors. Well, it turns out there’s this
other system in the world– you might have seen
this acronym before– called RGB– red, green, blue. And this is just a way of
humans having standardized years ago that you know what? If we want to represent a dot on
someone’s screen, otherwise known as a pixel a tiny little
square on the screen of your phone, your laptop,
or even TV these days, we’re going to use three bytes– one byte to specify how much red
should be in that specific pixel, one more byte to specify how much green
should be combined with red to form that pixel, and then
one more byte, a third, to represent how much blue to
combine with those other two colors to make a new color all together. So it’s kind of like combining
paints, except in this case, it’s more really waves of light in
order to get a specific color using just red, green, and blue as your palette. And so if we were to see this
red, green, blue pattern and say, you know what? Give me 72 red, 73 of
green, and 33 of blue. If the total possible range that I
alluded to earlier is like 0 to 256, or technically 0 to 255 if you start
counting in computer science from zero, this is like a medium amount
of red, medium amount of green, and just a little bit of blue,
if the range goes from 0 to 255. So if you combine these
three things together and you want to know
what color you get– yeah. So it’s kind of a light
yellow that looks like this. So if a computer is storing a
single dot on the screen that happens to be in yellow, what
the computer’s actually storing is not this dot physically,
but a pattern of three bytes– how much red, how much green,
how much blue should the computer display at this particular point. So if we look at this crying face of
joy and we kind of enhance or zoom in on it here, you can actually see
it start to pixelate, so to speak, where you start to see the dots. If I punch in a little
more, now you can really start to see the dots on the screen. And if I go an even
further, you can actually see the tiny little squares that
compose this image, most of which at the zoom level are yellow,
but a bunch of which are black, a bunch of which are light
black or dark yellow. And that’s what composes
this image ultimately. So this is to say if you count up
all of the pixels on the screen and then multiply it by one,
two, three bytes, that’s how many bytes or kilobytes or
megabytes, if you’ve heard those terms, are going to be stored on your
computer just to represent an image. So we’ve gone from electricity to down
here, so to speak, to zeros and ones, to decimal, now to colors. Well, with colors, you can get images. What comes after images? Well, we’ve all watched videos or
movies certainly digitally these days. Well, what is a movie or a video file? How might that be implemented? Say it a little louder. Yeah. It’s a collection of images. If you’ve ever heard
of frames per second– like movies tend to be 24 frames
per second or 30 frames per second– that just means that a
typical movie, every second is showing you 24 or
30 images per second and they’re just flying by
so quickly that you actually don’t notice you’re just watching
a sequence of static images. It’s like as a kid, if you ever had one
of those paper flip books where there’s tons of drawings in them, and
as you flip through the pages, you see things moving, but that’s
just because your eyes are just seeing little snapshots ever so quickly
of something moving on the paper. That’s all a video file actually is. So if you have an iPhone and you’ve
ever played with these animojis, so to speak, well, all those
are are little video files composed of lots and
lots and lots of images that you have saved on your
phone or texted to someone else. And if we just think, now, we’re at
the point of video, but that’s OK. Videos are just bunches of images. Images are just bunches of colors. Colors are just patterns of bits. And bits, at the end
of the day, are just the result of electricity coming
into my machine or transistors turning switches on and off. Like we’ve all of a sudden to hold
this entire story, but none of us ever is going to need to really think
about binary in the context of videos because a video is just an abstraction
on top of bunches of images, and images are just an abstraction on
top bunches of pixels, and so forth. So we can keep painting
this hierarchy that just allows us to talk about
things at a more useful level, and the reason we had
this conversation is just because we needed
a way to represent inputs and outputs to problems. Let me pause there for just a second
to see if there’s any questions. Anything at all? No? All right. So what’s inside this black box? Well, it turns out this is where
the really interesting work starts to happen and the thought
starts to come in. This is the proverbial algorithms,
step by step instructions for solving some problem. And some of you might have
solved this problem before, either digitally or
textually, but of course, if you have contacts in
your phone these days and you’ve got bunches
of friends and family, odds are they’re alphabetized
by first name or last name. And you have auto complete these
days, but it really is just a long list of names and numbers. That’s not all that different
from yesteryear’s implementation of the same problem, which was
this device here, a phonebook. Now, this phonebook might have a
friend of ours in it, say Mike Smith, whose last name starts with
S. And I could, of course, if trying to find Mike
Smith, start by looking at the first page, the second page,
the third page, the fourth page, and eventually, just
hopefully find Mike Smith. Indeed, is this algorithm,
this step by step process, correct for finding
someone like Mike Smith? Yeah. It’s correct. It’s stupid and slow
perhaps because it’s going to take forever in
a phone book of this size, but it is correct because if Mike’s
in here, I will, in fact, find him. But I could do this better. I could do it sort of two at a time. So two, four, six, eight,
10– or imperfectly– 10, 12, 14. Is that faster? Obviously, it’s going twice as fast. Is it correct? No. Why is it not correct? Yeah. I might miss him, right? Mike just accidentally might eventually
get sandwiched between two pages and I have the unlucky
experience of just missing him. Now, is it fixable? Yeah. I can probably, once I hit like SN
or the T section, for instance– I can just say, obviously,
I’ve gone too far for Mike. Let me just double back
one or just a few pages. So it is fixable. And so long as I’ve saved time by
flying through this twice as fast, can I at least afford to spend a
few more steps at the very end just to find Mike Smith? But none of us are going to do that. And our Apple devices and
Android devices certainly don’t do that for efficiency today. Odds are most of us are going to do what
to find someone in any book like this? Yeah. Open to roughly the middle or
maybe bias ourselves toward the end because S is after the middle. But you know, I’m in the
middle of the phonebook here. And now, if I know that Mike is in
the S’s and therefore over here, where do I know he’s not? He’s not in the beginning
and I can literally tear a problem like this in half,
throw figuratively and literally half of the problem away, and be left
with fundamentally the same problem, but it’s half as big. I went from like– whatever– 1,000 pages to 500 pages and I
can now repeat this algorithm. I look down. I’m a little too far. I’m in the T section now. OK. I can again tear the problem
in half, throw that half away, taking a 500 page byte out, a 250
page byte out, now leaving myself with just 250 pages more. And notice just how quickly I got here. The first two algorithms got me from
1,000 to 999 to 998, or 1,000 to 998 to 996. But here, I went from
1,000 to 500 to 250. Feels like we’re making up time here. And indeed, if I keep
repeating this process, hopefully, I’ll be left with
just one page of the book that Mike is either on or not,
at which point, I will call him. And so that’s an algorithm that honestly
leverages probably all the intuition we have and a lot of what
programming is going to be, is thinking about a problem like this,
figuring out how to divide and conquer it, and then expressing
yourself in a way that the computer can then
solve that problem for you. And just to paint a picture of how
much better this algorithm is, well, if this is just a very abstract
chart where we have on the vertical, or y-axis, how much time it
takes to solve a problem, and on the horizontal axis
how big the problem is– so the farther out you go this
way, the more pages in the problem, the more pages in the phonebook. And the higher you go up
here, the more seconds or page turns it’s going to take. That first algorithm is
just like a linear slope, so to speak, because for every
additional page in the book, it might take me one more second. Right, up. It’s just a one for one
relationship with pages. The second algorithm,
if I plot it, where I’m flying through
twice as fast, what is that line going to look like instead? Yeah. It’s going to look lower than this one. It’s still going to be a straight
line because now, there’s a two to one relationship, but if you’ve got a
phone book that’s got this many pages, and in the first algorithm,
it took this long, here, well, in the second algorithm, it will
take half as many steps, plus or minus or two if you need to actually
double back a little bit. But that third algorithm is
what we’ll call logarithmic. If n is the number of
pages in the phone book, the first algorithm,
in the very worst case, might take all n pages
to find Mike Smith. The second algorithm is going to
take half as many steps because I’m flying through it two at a time. But the third algorithm is going
to look and feel like this. It’s going to be curved and ever so
slowly rising and rising and rising, the implication of which is if
Verizon or the phone company doubles the number of
pages in the phonebook next year because Cambridge and
Somerville merged together in the phone book and we now have 2,000 pages. Well, how many more steps
does my third algorithm take? Just one. Because I can take a 1,000
page bite out of the problem with that clever algorithm, whereas
my first two algorithms would take it one or just two pages at a time. So that is to say we have to hugely
increase the size of this problem just for the number of seconds or page
turns to appreciably actually increase. And so as we start to
learn about programming, it’s, again, going to be leveraging
of this intuition in order to actually solve problems and
code more effectively than we might without that intuition alone. So let’s formalize this now. So that was kind of a very intuitive way
of dividing and conquering a problem. Just kind of made sense
to go in the middle, tear it, then go to the
other half or the other half and tear it again, and so forth. But a computer, even as cool as Alexa
and Google Home and all of this are, you can’t really just talk
to them as another human and have them execute things correctly. I struggle just to get Siri
to set a timer on my phone. So we’re not quite there yet,
so we’re still at the age where we have to be ever
so precise with computers, voice activated or otherwise, and
so thus enter pseudocode for now. Pseudocode has no formal definition. This is just a way of saying use English
like syntax or any spoken language and just express yourself
succinctly and correctly so that a computer or a
robot or even another person can understand what it
is you’re trying to say. So here, I propose, is
an algorithm written in pseudocode, English like syntax,
that just gets my point across. And I could write this
in any number of ways. I’ve numbered the steps from zero on
up, just for the sake of discussion, but this would seem to
capture what I did there. Pick up the phone book. Open to the middle of the phone. Look at the names. If Smith is among the names, call Mike. Else, if Mike Smith is
earlier in the book, go to the left, specifically the
middle of the left half of the book, and then go back to step two. Because indeed, I was just doing
the same thing again and again, and the reason I wasn’t doing it
forever was because every time I repeated myself by opening and
tearing, I was shrinking the problem. And I can only shrink a problem
of some fixed finite size so many times until I
get just one page, and so if I continue this logic looking to the
right or to the left or just quitting, if I don’t find Mike at
all on the last page, this would seem to capture
more precisely that code. Well, let’s actually excerpt
from this now a few concepts and then start to apply
them to actual code. Highlighted in yellow here, I dare
say, are all of the verbs or actions. These are the functions, as we’re
going to start calling them, in this algorithm. A function is just a specific
step, a specific action you take in order to do something. And so in yellow here– pick up,
open to, look at, call, open, quit are all actions or verbs. Are henceforth, we’ll
call them functions. Meanwhile, highlighted in yellow
here– if, else if, else if, else. These are kind of
starting to ask questions. What might these be called
if you have some familiarity? Yes. Turns out many programming
languages, if you’ve seen any before, would call these conditions. They’re branches, or
proverbial forks in the road. If this is true, go this way. Else, maybe go this other way, or
perhaps a third or fourth direction altogether. Meanwhile, if we actually look
at these highlighted phrases– if Smith is among names or
if Smith is earlier in book or Smith is later in book– these are the specific questions we’re
asking in order to make that decision. These are known as Boolean
expressions, named after a gentleman by the last name of
Boole some years ago. And so a Boolean expression
is just a question that has a yes or no answer, a
true false answer, a one zero answer, if you will. And that’s a nice mapping to what
computers are really good at. So within conditions, you
have Boolean expressions to decide which fork in the
road you want to go down. And then lastly,
highlighted in yellow here is go back to step 2
in a couple of places. This is inducing some
kind of cycle or loop that’s telling the computer to do
something again and again and again. So in short, we have these building
blocks already conceptually. And it turns out, we can
now start to translate these to an actual programming language. The first of the languages
we’ll introduce in CS50 is something called Scratch. Turns out this is not
a text based language, like in my English pseudocode
there, but it’s graphical and things look like puzzle
pieces that you can drag and drop and they interconnect if it
makes logical sense to do so. And in fact, some of you might have
played this back in the day as kids or even more recently because
it’s actually targeted typically at students in like
after school programs who just want to learn more methodical, more
algorithmic, or computational thinking. And we’re going to use it to
explore not only these building blocks, but a few others, as well. It turns out in the other languages
we’ll explore in CS50 and beyond, are languages like C that we’ll actually
transition to as quickly as next week, to then translate what we do this
week in Scratch to next week in C. And in languages like
Python and JavaScript and SQL, which we’ll also explore,
do we have other capabilities– the ability to store data
in variables, so to speak, to use threads, which means get the
computer to do multiple things at once, events, to mean listen for
things happening, like a click on the page or a human typing
or even saying something. We’ll be able to do all of
the things that you take for granted in your very own phones. And we’ll do this first
by way of this guy. So this is Scratch, the default cat
that comes with this programming language from MIT’s media lab. And via Scratch can we start
programming him to move up, down, left, right, say something,
utter something, and other commands all together. In fact, let me go ahead
and switch contexts here to show you the very first
thing I ever wrote in Scratch. It was back in the day when
I was in graduate school and Scratch had just
been invented by MIT. Let me go ahead and open this. And I called it Oscar Time. And if we could perhaps have a
volunteer come on up for just a moment. You have to be comfortable being
on stage and on the internet. How about here in the white shirt? I saw your hand first. Come on down. So this is Oscar Time. It’s implemented in a
language called Scratch. And at the end of the day, all that
is underneath the hood of this program is functions and loops and conditions
and a few other of these concepts. Hi. What’s your name? AVIVA: Aviva. DAVID MALAN: Aviva. David. Nice to meet you. Come on over here. And in just a moment, I’m
going to go ahead and click the green flag at the top
left hand corner, which is going to play this game. And we’ll see on the
screen the instructions. [MUSIC PLAYING] OSCAR: (SINGING) Oh, I love trash. Anything dirty or dingy or dusty. Anything ragged or rotten or rusty. Yes, I love trash. If you really want to see
something trashy, look at this. I have here a sneaker
that’s tattered and worn. It’s all full of holes
and the laces are torn. A gift from my mother
the day I was born. I love it because it’s trash. Oh, I love trash. Anything dirty or dingy or dusty. Anything ragged or rotten or rusty. Yes, I love trash. Here’s some more rotten stuff. I have here some
newspaper 13 months old. DAVID MALAN: All right. Everybody, give a round of applause
for Aviva for coming on up. Thank you. Here. Aviva. [APPLAUSE] A little CS50 stress ball. So suffice it to say, if
you’re tired of this song, consider how tired I was eight hours
later while debugging and building this program. But consider what it is we just saw. It’s this interactive game and stuff
is animated and music is playing. But if you focus on decomposing,
so to speak, this program into just basic building blocks, this is just kind
of a big abstraction over some lower level pieces of functionality. Like this trash can here. At the moment, it’s just a
picture, and on occasion, as soon as Aviva dropped something
into the trash, the lid came up and Oscar came out, he said
something, and then he went back down. But that animation is super simplistic. It was just a sequence of 1, 2, 3,
or so images displaying and then going back down to create
the illusion of animation. Meanwhile, every time
Oscar said something, that was keeping track of her
score in what’s called a variable. In algebra, you have x and y and z, but
in programming, you have the same idea, but it’s generally more useful
to call them more descriptively, like your score. And so there’s probably a
variable in this game called score that was just keeping
track of how many times Aviva had dropped
something into the trash. Meanwhile, the trash itself and the
shoe and the newspaper– and even more things happen eventually–
were falling from the sky at sort of random locations, and
that’s because I programmed the game to sort of start the trash
here or over here, just to make it a little more
challenging as the game picked up. And in fact, things start falling
faster and faster over time, like a typical game, getting
more and more difficult. So how do we get to something like that? Well, let me go ahead and
open up Scratch itself and introduce the environment. So in Scratch, you essentially
have three general areas. And it’s web based, and so you
can do this on any computer. And in the left hand side here,
you have those puzzle pieces to which I referred earlier. These puzzle pieces are all mapping
to functions or loops or conditions or variables, things that
we saw before, and I’m going to able to drag and drop
them into the middle in order to interconnect them
and write my program, which we’ll do in just a moment. Meanwhile, Scratch lives in this stage,
this world, where he can move up, down, left, right. You can change what Scratch looks like. You can add other characters,
otherwise known as sprites, in order to have multiple
things happening at once. And of course, you can fullscreen it. And so the Oscar Time game a moment ago
was actually a whole bunch of sprites. Oscar’s trash can was one. Each piece of trash was another sprite. The newspaper was a
sprite, and so forth. So each of them were separate programs
running in parallel at the same time. So let’s actually make him do something. It turns out that if I
jump down to, say, events, I’m going to see one of
the most powerful blocks from the get go, which is
this when green flag clicked. That’s indeed how I started
the game with Aviva, by clicking just above
Scratch’s world this green flag. And if I wanted to
stop it, as I did, you can click the red stop sign to say stop. Meanwhile, the green
flag, I can constantly listen for by dragging and
dropping this puzzle piece. When the green flag is
clicked, what do I want to do? Well, let me go up to looks. And these are just different categories. And we can scroll through all
the different colorful blocks, but they pretty much
just do what they say. I’m going to go under looks, where I
know there to be a block that’s called say, and I’m going to go ahead and type
the most canonical computer science thing– hello world– in this box. So notice that functions
themselves can actually take inputs and the input
to this function, say, is going to be hello world. If I now go over to the
green flag and click it– hello world. All right. So not all that difficult.
Not all that interesting. But it actually got the job done, and
so my program is indeed just this. Well, how might I make this
a little more interesting? Just saying, hello world all the
time isn’t all that compelling. Well, you know what? Let me think. Let me undo this. Let me scroll down to sensing. And notice this. Functions can also
take input from a human and functions can hand you back a
value, a so-called return value. So this block here, ask
something– by default, it says, what’s your name and weight– is another function built into
Scratch that allows me to do this. So I’m going to go
ahead and drag this here and I’m going to let it
say, what’s your name? Notice now that below this
block is a special block, whatever it is the block returns. So answer is whatever the
human is going to type in. And if I want to now say what the human
typed in, let me go again to looks. Go to say. And notice that these
blocks are kind of magnetic. They want to snap together. So I’m going to go
ahead and let go there. And if I go back to
sensing and grab answer, notice that even though it’s
not quite the same size, it’s going to grow to
fill, and now, I can have my program ask the user
what his or her name is and then say whatever that answer is. So let me go ahead and
stop and click play again. Notice it’s asking me for my name,
so let me go ahead and type in David. Enter. OK. It’s a little weird
way to greet someone. David. So it’d be nice to clean that up a bit. So you know what? I know this only from
having poked around before. Not all of this is
obvious at first glance. But it turns out that under
operators, the category, there’s this thing here–
join apple and banana. Which are just default values. You can change them. Because what do I want to do? I want to say hello, David, or whoever,
so I kind of want to say hello, comma, and then, David– whatever
the human typed in. And that’s what join lets you do. It lets you join or concatenate
two phrases that are somehow provided by you or the user. So let me pull this out, the answer. Let me go ahead and grab the join block. Notice it, too, is
going to grow to fill. Let me go ahead and say, hello, comma,
space, and now, drag answer into there. And notice this nesting. Just like in math. This nesting of functions. I can first join hello and answer
by taking those two things as input and then pass them to
say as another input because these things are layered on top. And so now, if I stop this and
play it again and say, David– hello, David. Now, we have the makings of a more
interesting interactive program that isn’t just hardcoded. Of course, it’s not nearly as audible as
something like Oscar Time a moment ago. So let me go ahead and do this. Let me start over altogether and
treat Scratch like the cat he is and just start the sound called meow. So it turns out there’s a
category of blocks called sound, and within sound, there is
play some default sounds. So start sound meow. And now, things will get a little cuter. [MEOW] Aw. And now, again. [MEOW] And I can kind of simulate a cat
by [MEOW] standing here for a while and keeping to click this button. But you know what? Let me make him meow few times
because that’s more realistic. So let me grab a second
one and a third one. And you can get this
infinite supply of blocks. Let me hit play. [MEOW] Seems like a bug. Let’s try again. Play. [MEOW] This is my first bug, or mistake. This looks correct. It says when green flag clicked,
start sound meow, start sound meow, start sound meow. Why am I only hearing one meow? Yeah. They’re kind of at the same time
or so close to the same time that the sounds are kind of tripping
over each other and just overlapping, right? The block literally
says, start sound meow. But computers are really fast. If you’ve heard of the expression
gigahertz, that’s a unit of measure. And if your computer has a one gigahertz
CPU, central processing unit, or brain, that means it can literally do
like a billion things per second. It can certainly start
three sounds super fast. And if they’re effectively all
happening one after the other before the sound even finishes,
you’re just hearing one net effect. So how can we fix this? Well, I can actually go and
fix this with this block here– play sound meow until done. Play sound meow until done. And now. [MEOWING] OK. It’s a little unhappy,
this particular cat, but at least it’s now more correct. And, as it turns out,
if I go to control– you know what? There’s this block here–
wait some number of seconds. I can go ahead and insert this here. Let me do another one here. And now, hit play. [MEOWING] You know, it’s not bad. It now sounds a little more realistic. But honestly, if I keep doing
this– or you know what? You can actually right click
or control click on blocks, duplicate them, and just copy and
paste even more if you want them. So if I were to do this, now,
it’s just going to go six times. And then I could copy it
again and go 12 times. But there’s got to be
a better way, right? This is now bad programming. This is bad design. Because I’m literally copying
and pasting, albeit, graphically. But we’ve already seen a
building block with which we can design this program better. It’s correct, but it’s
not well designed. What would the building block be that
I need to make this a little cleaner? OK. A four loop. Doesn’t quite exist in Scratch. But a loop fundamentally
does something cyclically. And indeed, if I go under
control and start poking around, you’ll notice that there’s a few
blocks that might apply here. There’s the repeat block
some number of times or the forever block, both of
which sound like loops, or cycles. So sure enough, let me go ahead
here and I can throw away blocks by just dragging them to the left. Let me pull this out for a second. And then just say forever play this
sound, and then wait one second. So now, my program looks like this. [MEOWING] You know, we’ll never know if it’s
technically correct because it’s just going to go, we think, forever,
but it looks like this is correct. And it was a lot less
code and it’s a lot easier to maintain because if I want
him to kind of get sleepy, I can then maybe say
two seconds instead. [MEOW] You know, and we can adjust
this on the fly as we go. But let’s start to combine
some of these ideas now and change what it is
the ultimate effect is. Let me go ahead and open an
example I made in advance. This one’s called Count Zero. And we’ll put this on the website later
so that you can play with if you like. And this is kind of the
opposite of counting sheep. Rather than me or the person
sleeping counting sheep, this sheep will count itself. So let me go ahead and just play. And adorably, he seems to
just be counting 1, 2, 3. But why is that? He’s just going to count forever. But let’s look at the blocks with
which he is counting forever. When green flag clicked, set counter. Turns out this orange box is
what we called a variable. So in algebra, it would
be like x or y or z. Those are not descriptive. I called this one counter instead, but
I could have called it x or y or z. And then I forever say the counter
for one second, then wait one second, and then change the
counter by one, which technically means just increment it. Add 1 to it. And the sheep is just going to
therefore count up and up and up. Now, this is a little
tedious, but that’s kind of the point of counting
sheep, of course, to fall asleep. But what if the sheep actually kind
of liked counting a little faster? Well, let me go under operators here. Multiplication sounds like it
could get us places quicker. And let me go ahead and go to variables. And instead of changing
the counter by one, let me go ahead and just keep
setting it to something else. So let me drag and drop this. Set the counter equal to something
times something, specifically the counter times two, thereby
doubling, doubling, doubling, doubling. That would seem to grow,
so to speak, a lot faster. Let’s see. 1, 2, 4. So he’s counting faster, but
it’s still kind of tedious. What if we instead do this? Let’s stop waiting and let’s
go ahead and, with the looks, not say counter for one second,
but let’s just quickly say counter. So I’m going to say the counter. Whoops. I’m going to say the counter and then
I’m going to set it to itself times 2. So here’s where we’re at. Initialize, or set the counter to 1
initially, say it, then double it, then double it, then double
it, saying it along the way. So here we go. That’s impressive. So now the sheep has counted
up to 10 to the 60th so far. 10 to the 100th. OK. Now, it doesn’t even fit in the
speech bubble, but he’s still going. How high can he go? What’s the biggest number you
can count to in a computer? Anyone want to guess? Could be here a while. 10 to the 270th now. How high can you count, or rather– OK. So we gave up and just
called it infinity. So it turns out infinity
does have a precise value– 10 to the 250th or so. But what happens here? Well, because computers,
at the end of the day, are just storing information digitally–
but that information digitally has to be physically stored using
electricity, using these lower level switches called transistors. At the end of the day, my phone, my
laptop, whatever device in question only has a finite
amount of those things. I only have a finite number of fingers. Using unary, my old
school hashmark approach, I can count to five on this hand. Using binary, I claimed I
could count to 31 on this hand. But it’s still finite. I cannot count to infinity on this
hand because I only have five fingers. Similarly does a computer only
have so many transistors or so many bytes or bits of
memory, and at some point, the programmer has to
think about what is he or she going to do when the user
wants to count so high that you can’t physically fit it anymore. You have to give up like this
and say something semi accurately or you have to handle that
issue in some other way. And we’ll see when we get to C that
how you handle this problem is not necessarily straightforward,
and indeed a lot of software out there does not handle this problem. And odds are, all of us
have programs that if you type big enough words or big
enough numbers into them, they might very well
break or crash or freeze because the humans, unlike MIT, did
not anticipate that that might actually happen and handle it. Well, let me go ahead and do this. Let me open up this program and
see if we can’t read the code now. This is called Pet Zero and this is
a program that simulates petting. So if I click play and
don’t touch the keyboard, nothing seems to be happening, but if
I now move my cursor over to the cat– [MEOW] Aw. It’s kind of cute. [MEOW] Right now, it’s more only meowing
on demand when you pet the cat. Why? Well, notice I’ve added
some other building blocks. We haven’t used this one
before, but it intuitively probably makes pretty clear sense. When the green flag is clicked,
forever do the following. If the cat is touching the mouse
pointer– this thing in blue is what we called earlier
a Boolean expression. It has a yes/no, a
true/false, a one/zero answer. And touching mouse pointer is one
of the options in the little drop down here if you tinker with it. So if the cat is touching the
mouse pointer, then and only then, play sound meow until done. So we’ve combined now functions
with loops with a condition. But why the loop? The cat’s only meowing
once when I pet him. Why am I doing anything forever here? Someone– yeah. Yeah. I might want to pet it again, so I
want the program to anticipate that. And honestly, if I omitted this
forever block and my program instead looked just like this– so let me get rid of that and this– and then I clicked play,
and now, I hover over him, why is it not working even once? Say it again. Yeah. So I mean, at this point,
if I can summarize, the computer is so damn
fast that this already happened by the time I moved my cursor
over to the cat, and at the moment I clicked play, I was
not touching the cat. Those blocks executed, so
to speak, top to bottom. That’s it for the program. So by the time I move the cursor
over to the cat, the program is over. It’s not listening. And so forever, this way I can actually
listen in perpetuity for something to actually happen. What if I want to do something
not just if something is true, but handle two cases? If or else. Well, let me go ahead
and open up Pet One. And this is another example. And could someone perhaps describe,
after reading this code, what this program is going to do instead? Yeah. Exactly. And let me summarize more verbally. So if this time, you’re touching
the cat, it’s going to roar instead. Else, it’s just going to meow sweetly. So this time, it is meowing
perpetually once every second, but if you touch this particular
cat, it doesn’t like it. So play. [MEOW] Meow. [MEOW] Meow. [MEOW] And now. [ROAR] Don’t touch the cat. So now, we might interact
in two different ways by having two different
roads that you can go down. Well, let’s actually make something
a little more interactive. Let me go ahead and
open another example. This one’s called Bounce
Zero because now, we can start to see some design
elements from what Oscar Time was. Like this now it’s getting
a little interesting. What is actually going on here? So let me zoom in on the blocks here. This block is just saying
forever move 10 steps, which is another block we haven’t seen. But 10 steps is like 10 pixels. So move 10 pixels on the screen. But if you’re touching the edge,
then turn around 180 degrees. And you can see exactly that happening. Scratch is turning around 180
degrees and this rotation style just means double back. Don’t like loop around 180 degrees. So that’s kind of cool. But this is not how humans or cats walk. Like what is obviously
unnatural about this? Yeah. I mean, I mean, I can’t
even simulate it, right? Like his feet are in static
position, yet sliding back and forth on the screen. And yet, that is not what walking is. Like walking presumably has
some kind of movement and what? Well, we could just kind
of simulate it like– OK, I could just walk– walking and you can imagine taking like
really quick photographs of my legs or the cat’s leg moving and
then just deciding this photo will be representative of one step. This photo will be
representative another. And you know, with just
two of those steps, I’d wager we could actually do
a pretty good job of simulating what walking looks like. In fact, if I go back to where we
began, this picture of Scratch, what if I just move his legs
ever so slightly, then go back, then go forward? And even just in my PDF, I can
simulate animation by hitting up arrow, down arrow, up arrow, down
arrow because it kind of looks like he’s walking now, when
really, your human eyes are just seeing two different pictures again and again. So how can I do this? Well, if I go back to
Scratch, he’s still walking. Let me go ahead and open up Bounce One,
the second version of this, and now, do this. OK. So how did I add this? There’s a little purple block
that we haven’t seen yet, but if you poke around
the categories, you’ll see other blocks like this
next costume that just keeps changing the costume that he’s wearing. It turns out Scratch exists as a
picture and his default picture is him not moving, but if I go up
here to top left and click costumes, you can actually see that
here’s his one costume. Here’s his second costume. And so that purple block that
says next costume, because it’s in the forever loop, it just keeps
doing next, next, next, next, next, just showing one costume or the other. They’re clearly mimicking walking. Now, this is not very unnatural. Why don’t we slow him down to, say, five
steps at a time and have him go again? Now, this is still going pretty fast. Let me go ahead and say– we could have control. We could have him wait a second
after moving very dramatically. We could probably speed this up. So let’s wait 1/10 of a second, 0.1. Or maybe let’s do 0.01,
1/100 of a second. Now, it’s getting a
little more realistic. But this is what animation is. If you’ve ever watched a cartoon or
a movie based on pictures like this, you’re just tinkering with some
of these parameters, these inputs, in order to produce this
output by understanding what the fundamental representation
of these things is, which in this case are just pictures, again
and again and again in order to create that animation. But what about interactivity? Let me do this one myself. Let me go ahead and get rid of
this, go back to events, and say, when green flag clicked. Then, let me go ahead
and grab a forever block so that this keeps
going again and again. And then, let me go
ahead to go to motion. It turns out that under motion,
there’s this block we haven’t seen– point towards the mouse pointer. And let me go ahead
and pull this in here. And then, let me have it move just
like one step at a time, instead of 10. What is this going to do? What’s this program do? Yeah. Say it again. Follow the mouse. Yeah. This is kind of like a way of
taking your cat for a walk. Perhaps not quite the animal we
intended, but he’ll follow the cursor. And I can actually speed
this up a little bit. So let’s have him move 10 steps. OK. Now, there we go. So now, he’s moving up and down,
and so now, it’s interactive. So you might recall that when we were
playing Oscar Time earlier and picking up– OK. Don’t do that. See, that’s a bug. He’s just confused. He’s constantly moving toward
it, but you’re already– OK. So we’re going to stop. OK. So now, he’s following, but
that’s how we might now create, for instance, the ability to
move those pieces of trash around and have them
follow the mouse cursor. If you think back to Oscar Time, every
time you picked up a piece of trash, he’d follow the cursor because there
was a forever loop and a block like this pointing toward the mouse pointer. Well, now, let’s
integrate multiple ideas and actually have multiple scripts. I proposed earlier that programs
can actually have multiple threads. A thread is just a fancy way of saying,
in our context, multiple scripts. Multiple scripts in one program that
are happening essentially in parallel. A computer can effectively do multiple
things at a time thanks to threading, and more on that down the road. So these are more
involved, but let’s see if we can– let’s understand
first what this program does. Let me go ahead and hit play. And this one tends to be a little loud. [SEA LION BARKING] So the sea lion is just
barking endlessly, annoyingly. So by reading the code, how
can I stop him from barking? Hit the spacebar. All right. So hit the spacebar. OK. I could just stop the
program, obviously, but this program is still
running, technically. But why did that work? Well, notice this on the left
hand side is the first script. When the green flag is clicked, set this
variable that I called muted to false. Could have called it x or y or
z or counter, but none of those really make sense, so I called it muted. And I set it equal to false,
which is, again, a Boolean value. True or false just mean yes or no. Forever, if the keyspace
is pressed, then do this. If muted is currently false,
then change muted to true. Else, change muted to false. So if muted is false, change it to true. If muted is true, change it to false. Any time the human hits the
spacebar, update that variable. Now, if we look at the other script,
which is also driving the sea lion, what is he doing? Forever, if muted is false. So if he’s not muted. If muted is false means not muted. Start the sound sea lion and then
think hi, hi, hi for two seconds, and then wait for one more second. And then just repeat, repeat, repeat. But if I change with the
spacebar muted to true, he’s going to say if muted
equals false, that’s not so. I’m not going to play a sound this time. And so now, we have the ability to
integrate multiple scripts together in order to achieve a
more interactive result. And what about this? Back when I was a kid, might have
played in the summers Marco Polo. Super simple game. We played it in the pool,
for some reason, where one person in the pool
very safely is blindfolded, and then he or she yells Marco. And then, everyone around him
or her is supposed to yell polo. And then, the person
who’s blindfolded is supposed to go chase the other
kids in the pool and tag them, and then they become it. But in other words, it’s this
like signaling mechanism. Someone yells, Marco and
everyone else responds to that broadcast of the word Marco. Well, it turns out we can simulate
this with these two puppets. This guy here– notice that I’ve
highlighted the orange puppet because there’s a second
blue puppet there. Separate sprites. And these are just photographs
we uploaded to the game. Forever, if the key space is pressed,
so if the spacebar is pressed, say Marco for two seconds
and then broadcast an event. Meanwhile, the blue puppet
here has a super simple block, but it’s fundamentally different
from the ones we’ve seen. He’s not starting when
the green flag is clicked. He is starting only when
he receives an event. So it turns out that sprites
and Scratch can’t hear or see what the other one is saying
in those speech bubbles. You have to use a
fancier technique, which is the special block
called broadcast, which is like passing a note digitally
from one sprite to another that the other one can read
or receive, so to speak. So only when he receives
this event, so to speak, does he say polo for two seconds. And again, the orange puppet
sends that secret message just using this other puzzle piece. Broadcast an event, like passing a note
that the human doesn’t actually see. So if I now hit the green flag and
hit the spacebar, orange yells Marco. Blue guy yells polo in response. But those aren’t timed together. Rather, the blue guy is hearing
with the orange one has said, thereby allowing multiple sprites
to actually intercommunicate. So how did we get here? Well, recall that we had all of
these building blocks a moment ago. First, we started out with
just functions and conditions and Boolean expressions and loops. We’ve now added to that the
ability to store information in variables and threads to do multiple
things at once, and then, if you do have multiple things
happening, events, where they can enter communicate somehow. Yet another building block. So if we now take a
step back and consider how we can make functions of
our own, we have the final piece of the puzzle, so to speak. Let me go ahead and do this. Let me go ahead and create a simple
program with, when green flag clipped, that simply simulates
coughing for a cat. So this cat is going to say not
hello, but cough for one second. And then he’s going to go
ahead and wait for one second. And then I’m going to go ahead
and copy paste, as I did before– this is one of those do as I say, not as
I do– to implement this program here, where he coughs three times. We already know, though, from
earlier that this is not good design. Why? You’re repeating yourself. Don’t repeat yourself. DRY is an acronym, actually. Don’t repeat yourself
because you’re doing three times as many times something
that you only really need to do once. The solution before, of course,
was just use a loop of some sort. So let me actually take that out. Let me use a repeat
block, change 10 to three, and then just use two of these blocks. And notice already, the program
is so much more compact. And now, if I want to change the three
to a 30 or to a 10 or any number, I just change one simple value. I don’t have to rewrite or
copy paste or delete things. I can update the program
much more readily, and now, the same thing is going to
happen with just cough, cough, cough. But it turns out that it would be nice
to henceforth abstract away from this, right? I just want any program I
write to know how to cough. And coughing is really just
saying something, perhaps some number of times. But it turns out we can
abstract this away in code. Let me go down to my
blocks here and this allows me to click this button– make a block. It allows me to make my own function. I get this dialog window here. And I’m just going to
call this block cough. I’m going to go ahead and click OK. And now, I have this new pink block that
itself can have blocks underneath it. And you know what I’m going to do? I’m going to go ahead and do this. I’m going to go ahead and
say cough under there. And now, notice on the left, I now
have access to this new pink piece. I can now put this in here. So now, notice even though, yes,
this is how coughing is implemented on the left hand side here, next
time, when I write a program, I just want to call cough. And I don’t care about those lower
level implementation details. I don’t care about the
party or any of that. I just want this to be an abstraction. But I could do better
than this wouldn’t it be nice if instead of just
repeating cough three times, what if I made that a feature of cough? So let me do this. I can go ahead and right click on
this pink piece and I can edit it. That brings up that
same window from before. And notice this. Add an input. So when I make a custom block, I can
actually make pretty fancy blocks just like the ones MIT
gives us with the software, and now, I can type in something like n. And if I add a label just to make it
more descriptive, I can just say times. So now, I’ve made a
special custom puzzle piece that says cough some number
of times, where n for number is just the go to variable
that programmers tend to use. So now, I can actually move this
repeat block into cough itself, but rather than hard
code 3, notice this. I can steal that variable and now say
cough this many times by repeating saying this again and again and again. And now, when I cough in my actual
program, I just type in three here. So I have this beautiful
abstraction now, so to speak. Cough this many times and I
and no one else in the world never again needs to care about what
it means to cough because we’ve already implemented that before. And so just as MIT has given
us so much functionality that we ourselves don’t
have to think about, so can I now make functionality that
I don’t have to think about. And as we progress to higher level
languages like C and JavaScript and Python, we’re going to
continue this process, sometimes solving problems ourselves by
making our own custom puzzle pieces, but very often using
things called libraries, code that other humans wrote before us
that’s just useful to get the job done, just as Scratch has done
here in part for us. Let me go ahead, then,
and bring all of this together by opening
this other example here. Let me go ahead and open up this one,
which isn’t something we’ve seen, but it’s kind of an interactive game
like this made by a former student. [MUSIC PLAYING] Should we have an apple? Yes. A little animation. OK. That didn’t end well. Let’s try again. Play again. And notice the say block is happening. There’s some kind of ask block. The student was checking if
the human typed in yes or no. Let’s type no this time. No apple. Ooh. Cupcake. OK. Yes. Enter. OK. Don’t do that. One more life. Here we go. [MUSIC PLAYING] OK. No apple. No cupcake. Little variable. [SCREAMING] [LAUGHTER] OK. So I won the game. In our final moments here, let me
go ahead and open one final example. As you know, CS50 is offered not only
at Harvard, but at Yale, as well, so it seems fitting to
perhaps end on a note that pits one campus perhaps against
the other by way of another game that a former student wrote
called Ivy’s Hardest Game. But for this, I think we need one final
volunteer who’s company coming up. OK. First hand. Right there. Come on down. So in Ivy’s Hardest Game, it’s
a game played with the keyboard. And even though it might look a
little overwhelming at first glance, just like Oscar Time did and just
like the gingerbread animation might, realize that if you decompose it in
just your mind’s eye thinking about what those individual building
blocks are, you can probably guess what the puzzle pieces are. Hi. What’s your name? ANDREA: Hi. I’m Andrea. DAVID MALAN: Andrea. David. Nice to meet you. Here is Ivy’s Hardest Game. Pits you against all of the Ivies here. And then right after this will we
adjourn for cupcakes in the transept. Ready? [MUSIC PLAYING] [MUSIC – MC HAMMER, “U CAN’T TOUCH
You can’t touch this. You can’t touch this. DAVID MALAN: Nice. [MUSIC – MC HAMMER, “U CAN’T TOUCH
You can’t touch this. My, my, my, my. Music hits you so hard. Makes me say, oh my lord. Thank you for blessing me with a
mind to rhyme and two hype feet. It feels good when you know you’re down. A super dope homeboy from the Oaktown. And I’m known as such. And this is the beat you can’t touch. I told you, homeboy,
you can’t touch this. Yeah. That’s how we’re living and
you know you can’t touch this. Look in my eyes. Man, you can’t touch this. [APPLAUSE] [MUSIC – MC HAMMER, “U CAN’T TOUCH
THIS”] (SINGING) Fresh new kicks and pants. You got it like that and now
you know you want to dance. So move out of your
seat and get a fly girl and catch this beat while it’s rolling. Hold on. Pump a little bit and let me
know it’s going on like that. Like that. Cold on a mission so pull on back. Let them know that you’re too much
and this is the beat you can’t touch. Yo, I told you, you can’t touch this. Why you standing there, man? You can’t touch this. Yo, sound the bells. School is in, sucker. You can’t touch this. Give me a song or rhythm. Making them sweat. That’s what I’m giving them. Now they know when you
talk about the Hammer, you talking about a show
that’s hyped and tight. Singers are sweating so
pass them a wipe or a tape to learn what it’s going to take
in the 90s to burn the charts. DAVID MALAN: Second to last level. [MUSIC – MC HAMMER, “U CAN’T TOUCH
hard or you might as well quit. That’s word because you
know you can’t touch this. You can’t touch this. Break it down. Stop. Hammer time. Go with the flow, it is said. If you can’t groove to this,
then you probably are dead. So wave your hands in the air. Bust a few moves. Run your fingers through your hair. This is it for a winner. Dance to this and you’re
going to get thinner. Move. Slide your rump. Just for a minute, let’s
all do the bump, bump, bump. Yeah. You can’t touch this. Look, man. You can’t touch this. You better get hype,
boy, because you know– [CROWD YELLING] [MUSIC – MC HAMMER, “U CAN’T TOUCH
THIS”] One more life. [MUSIC – MC HAMMER, “U CAN’T TOUCH
THIS”] MC HAMMER: (SINGING) Stop. Hammer time. DAVID MALAN: All right. A round of applause for
Andrea, if we could. [APPLAUSE] OK. That’s it for CS50. See the website for details. We’ll see you for cake in the transept. Welcome aboard.

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